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Category Archives: brain

Xel Pharmaceuticals Announces Successful Completion of Prototype Once-A-Week Huperzine A Transdermal Patch for Alzheimer’s Disease

People come to this site all the time looking for information on Huperzine A. It is very popular search.

Xel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced today the completion of the development of its once-a-week Huperzine A transdermal patch for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The prototype transdermal patch can deliver 400–800 mcg of Huperzine A per day for up to seven days.

This is a prototype and is not currently available for purchase.

Huperzine A Factsheet (Alzheimer’s)

Note: the clinical trial of Huperzine A is closed but here is the link to the trial information..Huperzine A in Alzheimer’s Disease-The Clinical Trial

Xel Pharmaceuticals Announces Successful Completion of Prototype Once-A-Week Huperzine A Transdermal Patch for Alzheimer’s Disease

Xel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced today the completion of the development of its once-a-week Huperzine A transdermal patch for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The prototype transdermal patch can deliver 400–800 mcg of Huperzine A per day for up to seven days. Huperzine A is a naturally occurring alkaloid found from the club moss Huperzia serrata that has been used for decades in China as a prescription medication for the treatment of dementia. Huperzine A is a potent, highly selective and reversible inhibitor of acetyl cholinesterase. Additionally, Huperzine A has anti-oxidative properties and possesses neuro-protective properties against glutamate that induce neuronal toxicity at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.

Dr. Danyi Quan, Chief Scientific Officer of Xel, said, “The failure of recent Phase III clinical trials for AD treatment may cast some new doubt on that theory as well as on other experimental drugs. In addition, some new Alzheimer drugs show potential risks including serious side effects. However, the clinical studies performed in China to-date showed Huperzine A to be more effective than other cholinesterase inhibitors currently on the market, and the US clinical Phase II trials with Huperzine A oral tablets conducted by the nation’s leader in AD therapy, Dr. Paul Aisen, clearly demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Huperzine A in the treatment of patients with AD.”

“In the past 10 years, there have been limits and some real difficulties in finding a good candidate from existing western medicines to develop transdermal drug delivery systems. However, many drug candidates derived from botanic sources with proven safety and efficacy data are available for further development, which now has become a fast and effective way for us to select candidates for designing our advanced drug delivery systems. Huperzine A is one of our most promising and successful transdermal products. Its low therapeutic dose and molecular weight makes Huperzine A ideal for transdermal drug delivery. Our once-a-week transdermal patch is a clearly preferable treatment method to AD patients and caregivers. The prototype Huperzine A transdermal patch is ready for IND filing and further development.” Dr. Quan added.

According to Mr. Wade Xiong, President and CEO of Xel, “We are delighted to announce the completion of the development of our prototype Huperzine A transdermal patch. Xel has two world renowned scientists, Dr. Dinesh C. Patel and Dr. Danyi Quan, both of whom pioneer in transdermal delivery technology. As our Chairman of the Board, Dr. Patel also was the past founder of transdermal drug delivery pioneer TheraTech, Inc. (now Watson Pharmaceuticals). Xel’s business strategy is to identify compounds having proven safety and efficacy, and to further develop advanced drug delivery systems in order to provide better delivery profiles as well as patent protection. Currently, Xel has several co-development and licensing opportunities available for major pharmaceutical companies.”

 

Vitamin B12 May Protect Against Brain Shrinkage in Baby Boomers

These findings should be of special interest to baby boomers now entering their 60s. It could be a good idea to consult with a physician about B-12 shots.

A study conducted by researchers at the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA) found that people with higher levels of vitamin B12 were six times less likely to experience brain volume loss.

Vitamin B12, a nutrient found in meat, fish and milk, may protect against brain volume loss in older people. The researchers studied 107 volunteers age 61 to 87 who did not have cognitive impairment when they volunteered. The volunteers underwent yearly MRI brain scans, cognitive and memory tests and physical exams for five years.

This study suggests that simply adjusting our diets to consume more vitamin B12 through eating meat, fish, fortified cereals or milk may be something we can easily adjust to prevent brain shrinkage and so perhaps save our memory, says Anna Vogiatzoglou of the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics at Oxford University. Research shows that vitamin B12 deficiency is a public health problem, especially among the elderly, so more vitamin B12 intake could help reverse this problem. Without carrying out a clinical trial, we acknowledge that it is still not known whether B12 supplementation would actually make a difference in elderly persons at risk for brain shrinkage.


Vitamin B12 may protect the brain in old age

Vitamin B12, a nutrient found in meat, fish and milk, may protect against brain volume loss in older people, according to a University of Oxford study.

For the study, 107 people between the ages of 61 and 87 underwent brain scans, memory testing and physical exams. The researchers from the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA) also collected blood samples to check vitamin B12 levels. Brain scans and memory tests were also performed again five years later.

The study, published in the journal Neurology, found that people who had higher vitamin B12 levels were six times less likely to experience brain shrinkage compared with those who had lower levels of the vitamin in their blood. None of the people in the study had vitamin B12 deficiency.

Many factors that affect brain health are thought to be out of our control, but this study suggests that simply adjusting our diets to consume more vitamin B12 through eating meat, fish, fortified cereals or milk may be something we can easily adjust to prevent brain shrinkage and so perhaps save our memory,” says Anna Vogiatzoglou of the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics at Oxford University. “Research shows that vitamin B12 deficiency is a public health problem, especially among the elderly, so more vitamin B12 intake could help reverse this problem. Without carrying out a clinical trial, we acknowledge that it is still not known whether B12 supplementation would actually make a difference in elderly persons at risk for brain shrinkage.”

Previous research on the vitamin has had mixed results and few studies have been done specifically with brain scans in elderly populations. We tested for vitamin B12 levels in a unique, more accurate way by looking at two certain markers for it in the blood,” adds Ms Vogiatzoglou.

Ms Vogiatzoglou says the study did not look at whether taking vitamin B12 supplements would have the same effect on memory.

The study was supported by the UK Alzheimer’s Research Trust, the Medical Research Council, the Charles Wolfson Charitable Trust, the Norwegian Foundation for Health and Rehabilitation through the Norwegian Health Association, Axis-Shield plc and the Johan Throne Holst Foundation for Nutrition Research.

For more information please contact Professor David Smith on david.smith@pharm.ox.ac.uk

Or the Press Office, University of Oxford, 01865 280528, press.office@admin.ox.ac.uk.

* OPTIMA, the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing, is tackling one of the great medical and social challenges of our time: the diseases of the ageing brain. It aims to deepen our understanding of the changes that occur in the brain as we age, in a longitudinal study of normal volunteers and patients with memory problems. In revealing the differences between normal brain ageing and diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, OPTIMA will lay the foundations for the development of new forms of prevention and treatment. http://www.medsci.ox.ac.uk/optima

* Oxford University’s Medical Sciences Division is one of the largest biomedical research centres in Europe. It represents almost one-third of Oxford University’s income and expenditure, and two-thirds of its external research income. Oxford’s world-renowned global health programme is a leader in the fight against infectious diseases (such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and avian flu) and other prevalent diseases (such as cancer, stroke, heart disease and diabetes). Key to its success is a long-standing network of dedicated Wellcome Trust-funded research units in Asia (Thailand, Laos and Vietnam) and Kenya, and work at the MRC Unit in The Gambia. Long-term studies of patients around the world are supported by basic science at Oxford and have led to many exciting developments, including potential vaccines for tuberculosis, malaria and HIV, which are in clinical trials.

Original content the Alzheimer’s Reading Room

 

The Brain and Alzheimer’s

Sometimes I get asked a question about the brain and how Alzheimer’s is effecting the brain.

I ran across this very interesting tour of the brain on the website of the Alzheimer’s Association. The tour explains brain basics and how Alzheimer’s effects the brain. This should help give you a better understanding of the causes of the illness.

Inside the Brain: an Interactive Tour

 
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Posted by on September 9, 2008 in alzheimer's, bob demarco, brain, health, science, tour

 

Signs of Alzheimer’s disease may be present decades before diagnosis

This is the kind of research that could make a big difference in the search for causes and therapies for Alzheimer’s. It is clear that the sooner the disease is diagnosed the better the chances of slowing the progression–that is where we are today. In the not so distant future as therapies evolve to slow the progression of disease early diagnosis will become even more important.

Adult head size can be used to estimate the size of the fully-developed brain. Previous studies have found that clinical expression of Alzheimer’s disease is related to head size, with people having smaller heads more likely to show the characteristic symptoms of this illness. Larger brains provide reserve against Alzheimer’s, allowing people to function normally despite having considerable Alzheimer pathology in their brains.



Signs of Alzheimer’s disease may be present decades before diagnosis

Scientists from the University of South Florida and the University of Kentucky report that people who develop Alzheimer’s disease may show signs of the neurodegenerative illness many decades earlier in life — including compromised educational achievement. Their research is published online this month in the journal Alzheimer’s Disease and Associated Disorders.

Participants in the Nun Study were studied to identify those who became demented before death or had characteristic brain changes of Alzheimer’s disease at autopsy. Among nuns who became demented or had evidence of Alzheimer’s disease at autopsy, those with small head sizes had significantly lower educational achievement in earlier adult life. In those dying without a dementia diagnosis or autopsy evidence of Alzheimer’s disease, head size had no relationship with education.

Adult head size can be used to estimate the size of the fully-developed brain. Previous studies have found that clinical expression of Alzheimer’s disease is related to head size, with people having smaller heads more likely to show the characteristic symptoms of this illness. Larger brains provide reserve against Alzheimer’s, allowing people to function normally despite having considerable Alzheimer pathology in their brains.

“If brain damage related to Alzheimer’s disease begins earlier in adult life, then having less reserve due to a smaller brain could compromise intellectual ability in those destined to get Alzheimer’s and lead to them getting less education,” said lead author James Mortimer, PhD, professor of epidemiology at USF.

“Although it has been known for many years that individuals with lower education have a greater risk of getting Alzheimer’s, this is the first report showing that reduced educational attainment may actually be an early sign of the underlying disease.”

The study findings add to others showing that individuals who will eventually develop Alzheimer’s differ from those who don’t many decades before. In 1996, the Nun Study found that Alzheimer’s disease with onset in old age could be predicted accurately from characteristics of autobiographical essays written at an average age of 22. Other studies have shown that those who develop Alzheimer’s have specific deficits on tests of memory and thinking decades before the disease is diagnosed. The fact that subtle signs of Alzheimer’s appear many years before symptoms appear may be useful for predicting who is at risk of the illness and identifying individuals earlier in life who could benefit from preventive therapies.

The Nun Study, begun in 1992, is a study of 678 Catholic sisters, initially 75 to 102 years of age, who were evaluated annually for dementia and who agreed to brain donation at the time of their deaths. The study is sponsored by the National Institute on Aging.

– USF Health-

USF Health is dedicated to creating a model of health care based on understanding the full spectrum of health. It includes the University of South Florida’s colleges of medicine, nursing, and public health; the schools of biomedical sciences as well as physical therapy & rehabilitation sciences; and the USF Physicians Group. With $308 million in research funding last year, USF is one of the nation’s top 63 public research universities and one of Florida’s top three research universities.

 
 

Signs of Alzheimer’s disease may be present decades before diagnosis

This is the kind of research that could make a big difference in the search for causes and therapies for Alzheimer’s. It is clear that the sooner the disease is diagnosed the better the chances of slowing the progression–that is where we are today. In the not so distant future as therapies evolve to slow the progression of disease early diagnosis will become even more important.

Adult head size can be used to estimate the size of the fully-developed brain. Previous studies have found that clinical expression of Alzheimer’s disease is related to head size, with people having smaller heads more likely to show the characteristic symptoms of this illness. Larger brains provide reserve against Alzheimer’s, allowing people to function normally despite having considerable Alzheimer pathology in their brains.



Signs of Alzheimer’s disease may be present decades before diagnosis

Scientists from the University of South Florida and the University of Kentucky report that people who develop Alzheimer’s disease may show signs of the neurodegenerative illness many decades earlier in life — including compromised educational achievement. Their research is published online this month in the journal Alzheimer’s Disease and Associated Disorders.

Participants in the Nun Study were studied to identify those who became demented before death or had characteristic brain changes of Alzheimer’s disease at autopsy. Among nuns who became demented or had evidence of Alzheimer’s disease at autopsy, those with small head sizes had significantly lower educational achievement in earlier adult life. In those dying without a dementia diagnosis or autopsy evidence of Alzheimer’s disease, head size had no relationship with education.

Adult head size can be used to estimate the size of the fully-developed brain. Previous studies have found that clinical expression of Alzheimer’s disease is related to head size, with people having smaller heads more likely to show the characteristic symptoms of this illness. Larger brains provide reserve against Alzheimer’s, allowing people to function normally despite having considerable Alzheimer pathology in their brains.

“If brain damage related to Alzheimer’s disease begins earlier in adult life, then having less reserve due to a smaller brain could compromise intellectual ability in those destined to get Alzheimer’s and lead to them getting less education,” said lead author James Mortimer, PhD, professor of epidemiology at USF.

“Although it has been known for many years that individuals with lower education have a greater risk of getting Alzheimer’s, this is the first report showing that reduced educational attainment may actually be an early sign of the underlying disease.”

The study findings add to others showing that individuals who will eventually develop Alzheimer’s differ from those who don’t many decades before. In 1996, the Nun Study found that Alzheimer’s disease with onset in old age could be predicted accurately from characteristics of autobiographical essays written at an average age of 22. Other studies have shown that those who develop Alzheimer’s have specific deficits on tests of memory and thinking decades before the disease is diagnosed. The fact that subtle signs of Alzheimer’s appear many years before symptoms appear may be useful for predicting who is at risk of the illness and identifying individuals earlier in life who could benefit from preventive therapies.

The Nun Study, begun in 1992, is a study of 678 Catholic sisters, initially 75 to 102 years of age, who were evaluated annually for dementia and who agreed to brain donation at the time of their deaths. The study is sponsored by the National Institute on Aging.

– USF Health-

USF Health is dedicated to creating a model of health care based on understanding the full spectrum of health. It includes the University of South Florida’s colleges of medicine, nursing, and public health; the schools of biomedical sciences as well as physical therapy & rehabilitation sciences; and the USF Physicians Group. With $308 million in research funding last year, USF is one of the nation’s top 63 public research universities and one of Florida’s top three research universities.

 
 

Exercise May Prevent Brain Shrinkage in Early Alzheimer’s Disease


Mild Alzheimer’s disease patients with higher physical fitness had larger brains compared with mild Alzheimer’s patients with lower physical fitness, according to a study published in the July 15 issue of Neurology.



Physical Fitness May Slow Alzheimer’s

Getting a lot of exercise may help slow brain shrinkage in people with early Alzheimer’s disease, a preliminary study suggests. Analysis found that participants who were more physically fit had less brain shrinkage than less-fit participants. However, they didn’t do significantly better on tests for mental performance.

That was a surprise, but maybe the study had too few patients to make an effect show up in the statistical analysis, said Dr. Jeffrey Burns, one of the study’s authors.

He also stressed that the work is only a starting point for exploring whether exercise and physical fitness can slow the progression of Alzheimer’s. The study can’t prove an effect because the participants were evaluated only once rather than repeatedly over time, he said.

While brains shrink with normal aging, the rate is doubled in people with Alzheimer’s, he said.

Burns, who directs the Alzheimer and Memory Program at the University of Kansas School of Medicine in Kansas City, reports the work with colleagues in Tuesday’s issue of the journal Neurology.

The study included 57 people with early Alzheimer’s. Their physical fitness was assessed by measuring their peak oxygen demand while on a treadmill, and brain shrinkage was estimated by MRI scans.

Dr. Sam Gandy, who chairs the medical and scientific advisory council of the Alzheimer’s Association, said the result fits in with previous indications that things people do to protect heart health can also pay off for the brain.

 

Study points to dietary cocktail for Alzheimer’s

This is the kind of science that really gets me excited.

clipped from web.mit.edu

The combination of supplements, which contains three compounds normally found in the bloodstream, is now being tested in Alzheimer’s patients. The cocktail has previously been shown to promote growth of new brain connections in rodents.

“It may be possible to use this treatment to partially restore brain function in people with diseases that decrease the number of brain neurons, including, for example, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, strokes and brain injuries. Of course, such speculations have to be tested in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials,” said Richard Wurtman, Cecil H. Green Distinguished Professor of Neuropharmacology and senior author of a paper on the new work.

clipped from web.mit.edu
beverage
blog it
 
 
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